Issue 2009-9


International Journal of Clinical Nutrition (IJCN) ISSN (India) 0971-9210, Url:

A publication of the International College of Nutrition,

2009; Vol 9(1): 1-25


Shaw Watanabe(1) and Mari Uehara (2).1Lifescience Promoting Association, 2Tokyo University of Agriculture, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.


Mari Uehara, Ph.D., Professor of Tokyo University of Agriculture

Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan, Email.,


Soy foods were first consumed in China more than a millennium ago. In Japan, soybeans have been cultivated since the Yayoi era, 2000 years ago, and in Heian era (8 century) seasoning connected to present, such as miso, soy sauce, etc. was made. At present, nearly 850,000 tons of soybean is consumed as raw material for food in Japan, in which 53% of tofu, 18% miso, 8.7% natto are the main foods. The low incidence of breast and prostate cancer, heart disease, and hot flashes in Japan may be due to increased intake of soya products. Isoflavones found in soybeans are nonsteroidal phytoestrogenic and antioxidative diphenolic compounds with potential roles in the prevention of chronic diseases, including hormone dependent cancer cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis and postmenopausal syndrome. Japanese consume 40-100 mg/day from various kind of soy foods, and it may contribute to the low incidence of above diseases. S(-)-equol, a metabolite of daidzein by the intestinal microflora, shows strongest estrogenic activity among isoflavones. Epidemiological, metabolic and  animal and in vitro experiments, randomized clinical studies are necassary for confirmation of the role of soya supplements and its safety in the prevention of chronic diseases.

Key words: isoflavone, daidzein, genistein, equol, lignin, epidemiology, randomized clinical trial, metanalysis, supplement, safety 

How to cite: Watanabe S and Uehara M.  Effects of soy and isoflavones on health.  Int J Clin Nutrition 2009; 9: 1-5.       


Watanabe S, Uehara M.. In Editors, RB Singh, Watson RR, Takahshi T, Role of Functional Food Security in Gobal Health. Elsevier, 2018


Ram B Singh (1), Shairy Khan(2), Anil K Chauhan(3), Meenakshi Singh(4), Poonam Jaglan(5), Poonam Yadav(3), Toru Takahashi(6), Lekh R Juneja (7).

1Halberg Hospital and Research Institute, Moradabad; 2Department of Food Science, SNDT University, Poona, 3Center of Food Science and Technology, IAS,BHU, Varanasi;  4MS,CSIR, New Delhi; 5Center of Nutrition Research, Panipat; 6Graduate School of Human Environmental Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan. 7Department of Research and Development, Rohto Co Limited, Osaka, Japan. 


Prof. Dr Ram B Singh, MD,FICN, FICC

Halberg Hospital and Research Institute,

Civil Lines, Opp. Wilsonia College

Moradabad, India;, Tel.9997794102


Millets are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, mostly grown in Asia and the most important species are pearl millet, finger millet, proso millet, foxtail millet and pearl millet. Proso millet is used for bird seed in the developed countries and for food in some parts of Asia. In China and Eastern Europe, foxtail millet is important crop. Finger millet is widely produced in the cooler, higher-altitude regions of Africa and Asia both as a food crop and as a preferred input for traditional beer. Food security has been a major concern to the world’s population that is highly dependent on grains. Millets are nutritionally superior as their grains contain high amount of proteins, minerals, calcium, iron etc, flavonoids, polyphenols and vitamins which could be used as functional food for prevention of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Millets could be used to combat micronutrient malnutrition by bio-fortification of staple crops. Millets could be mixed in cakes, biscuits, cookies, bread and pastries to provide proteins and above mentioned micronutrients which may convert modern foods in to functional foods.

Key Words. Amino acids, proteins, antioxidants, flavonoids, minerals, vitamins. 

How to cite: Singh RB, Khan S, Chauhan AK, Singh M, Jaglan P, Poonam Yadav P, Takahashi T, Juneja LR. Millets as functional food for health promotion. Int J Clin Nutrition 2009; 9: 6-10. 


Singh RB, Khan S, Chauhan AK, Singh M, Jaglan P, Yadav P, Takahashi T and jneja LR. Millets as functional food, a gift from Asia to Western world. In Editors; R B Singh, Tor Takahashi, Watson RR, Role of Functional Food Security in Global Health, Elsevier, USA, 2018 


MA Manal Smail (1), MA Abla Ismail (2), TK Basu (3), Osama Elmarghy (4), Gaal Elkilany (5). Garima Tyagi (6).1United Arab University, Ajnam, UAE; 2Corniche Hospital, Abudhabi,  United Arab Emirates, 3University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada; Naeem Diabetic Center, Jahraa, Kuwait; 5Global Health Care Division, La Place, USA, 6Hindu College, Moradabad, India.


Dr.Osama Elmaraghy, PhD.Msc.PGDD (UK).

Naeem Diabetic Centre 

Jahraa-Kuwait, Email:> 


 Beyond serum total cholesterol, oxidative stress and antioxidant vitamin deficiency has been an important hypothesis in the development of atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke. A dietary and serum levels of antioxidants deficiency and oxidative stress, have been observed in patients with acute myocardial infarction(AMI) and antioxidants have been used for the treatment of  these patients. Epidemiological studies show that vitamin A,E  and C and beta-carotine as well as  folic acid and selenium were inversely associated with risk of morbidity and mortality due to CVDs and cancer. However, randomized, controlled intervention trials showed no evidence of benefit in CVDs and cancers; but adverse effects were observed in some of the important studies. Hence, there is no evidence to support the use of antioxidant vitamins in the prevention of CVDs and cancer. Further studies are necessary to find out the role of vitamins and minerals in children, malnutrition and chronically ill people in the elderly population. 

Kew Words. Minerals, heart disease, oxidative stress, stroke, cancer.

How to cite: Manal Smail MA, Abla Ismail MA, Basu TK, Elmarghy O, Elkilany E, Tyagi G.. Antioxidant vitamins in health and disease. Int J Clin Nutrition 2009; 9: 11-15. 


Darlenska HD, Handjiev S, Hristova K, Singh RB, Tyagi G. Antioxidant  vitamins and the heart. World Heart J 2014;6:179-184.


MA Niaz (1), S Ghosh(2), HS Buttar (3), NH Hadi (4), Gushchina Yulia (5). 1,2Halberg Hospital and Research Institute, Moradabad, India; Medicine, University of Ottawa, Faculty of Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq; Peoples, Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia. 


Dr Gushchina Yulia, MD, PhD

Department of Pharmacology, Peoples, Friendship University of Russia,

Moscow, Russia. Email: <>


A dietary and serum levels of antioxidants deficiency and oxidative stress, have been observed in patients with acute myocardial infarction(AMI) and antioxidants have been used for the treatment of these patients. However, current clinical evidence is insufficient to assess the benefits and risks of taking multivitamins or single or paired nutrient supplements for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVDs) or cancer. Usefulness of antioxidant vitamins in suspected AMI has been examined in one early randomized, controlled intervention trial by Singh et al published in 1996.The findings revealed that treatment with combination of vitamin E and C and beta-carotine administered for 4 weeks was associated with decline in cardiac events but the level of significance was only P<0.056 which is considered non-significant. This was a warning finding, to indicate no significant benefit in patients with CVD. However, it was considered important because AMI patients have enormous amount of oxidative stress and antioxidant vitamin deficiency resulting due to increased consumption  to fight the acute myocardial stress. Effects of coenzyme Q10(CoQ10) on risk of atherosclerosis in patients with recent myocardial infarction has  also been found to be beneficial (9,10). CoQ10 is a vitamin like molecule, normally present in the inner side of the mitochondrial cell membranes which is a potential antioxidant involved in the cell energy production. CoQ10 has been found to be important in hypertension, insulin resistance, heart failure and in decreasing lipoprotein(a). Population studies have reported inverse association of serum magnesium and antioxidant vitamins status with risk of complications of ageing in an elderly urban population. Diet, antioxidants and risk of cancer has been reported in a case study. Association of low plasma concentration of antioxidant vitamins, magnesium and zinc with high body fat percent have been observed among men. There may be a circadian rhythmicity of circulating vitamin concentrations showing lower levels in the morning due to increased consumption to fight the circadian oxidative stress. In an experiment in rabbits, antioxidant effects of lovastatin and vitamin E, on experimental atherosclerosis have been demonstrated. The available evidence indicate that vitamin E and beta-carotine may have adverse effects  in CVDs.

Key words. Beta-carotine, vitamin E, hypertension, insulin resistance, Coenzyme Q10.

How to cite: Niaz MA, Ghosh S, Buttar  HS, Hadi NH, Yulia G. Vitamins in acute myocardial infarction. Int J Clin Nutrition 2009; 9: 16-20. 


Jan Fedacko (1), Ram B Singh (2), Toru Takahashi (3), Mohammed A Niaz (4), OK Gupta(5), Gushchina Yulia.1Faculty of Medicine, PJ Safaric University, Kosice, Slovakia;2Halberg Hospital and Research Institute, Moradabad, India; 3Graduate School of Human Environmental Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan;5Metro  Group  of Hospital, Noida,India.


Dr Gushchina Yulia, MD, PhD  Department of Pharmacology,                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

People,s Friendship University of Russia,

Moscow, Russia.


Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become a major cause of death and disability in both developed and developing countries. This epidemic of NCDs may be due to unhealthy diet and lifestyle characterized with Western diet; high refined and preserved foods, red meat, preserved meat and decreased intake of vegetables, whole grains, nuts, fruits and olive oil. Healthy diets are rich in plant foods and majority of the plant foods are rich in fiber. Vegetables, whole grains, fruits and legumes are rich sources of fibers. Soluble fibers have been considered more useful compared to insoluble fibers. Dietary fibers are known to have hypoglycemic, hypo-cholesterolemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antihypertensive effects indicating that fiber intake may be protective against cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs); as well as other chronic diseases. In a meta-analysis, insoluble fiber and fiber from cereal and vegetable sources were inversely associated with risk of CAD and  CVD. Fruit fiber intake as part of Mediterranean style diet was also inversely associated with risk of  CVD. High-fiber diets provide bulk, are more satiating, and have been associated with decreased risk of obesity. Obesity is a risk factor for cancer and evidence that fiber decreases cancer is mixed, because of scarcity in research. Increased consumption of high-fiber foods such as whole grains, legumes,and Mediterranean style foods;  are inversely associate with risk of cancer. These results support the general recommendations to increase fiber intake for prevention of NCDs. Dietary reference intakes recommend the consumption of 14 g of dietary fiber per 1000 kcal, or 25 g for women and 38 g for men, based on the goal of protection against NCDs. The mechanism could be that fiber inhibit the absorption of fat from the gut but recently dietary fiber has been demonstrated to be beneficial for gut microbiome. The differing strengths of association by fiber type or source highlight the need for a better understanding of the mode of action of fiber components and the effects of fiber on other targets which indirectly control NCDs.

Key Words. Fiber rich foods, soluble fiber, insoluble fiber, fibrous foods, Mediterranean diet.

How to cite: Fedacko J, Singh RB, Takahashi T, Mohammed A Niaz MA, Gupta OK, Yulia G. Dietary fiber in health and risk of chronic diseases. Int J Clin Nutrition 2009; 9: 21-25.