Issue 2006-6


International Journal of Clinical Nutrition (IJCN) ISSN (India) 0971-9210, Url:

A publication of the International College of Nutrition,

2006; Vol 6(1): 1-25


RB Singh (1), Sanjay Mishra (2), , Meenakshi Singh(3),  Krasimira Hristova(4), Anna Gvozdjakova (5). 1Halberg Hospital and Research Institute, Moradabad, India; 2IFTM Institute, Moradabad, India; 3CSIR, Government of India, New Delhi, India; 4University National Heart Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria; 5Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia. 


Dr RB Singh, MD, FICN

Halberg Hospital and Research Institute,

Civil Lines, Moradabad (UP)244001, India, 


WHO and UNICEF have suggested that under-nutrition and maternal micronutrient deficiencies are likely to be responsible for major complications in pregnancy in mothers and fetus. It has been proposed that undernutrition during fetal life and infancy and childhood is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) in the  adulthood. Healthy diets and micronutrient supplements during pregnancy can act as a precautionary measure for reducing the morbidity and mortality, as well as in treating maternal complications during pregnancy which may be protective against CVDs and T2DM that develop in adult life. Development of a new package of nutrient-rich food based on egg or milk or soy bean proteins, containing multiple micronutrient supplements, are available at affordable cost. Nutrient supplement recommendations by UNICEF/WHO/UNU (United Nations University) for pregnant women are to include 15 micronutrients as follows: 400 μg folic acid, 30 mg iron, 800 μg vitamin A, 200 IU vitamin D, 10 mg vitamin E, 70 mg vitamin C, 1.4 mg vitamin B1, 1.4 mg vitamin B2, 18 mg niacin, 1.9 mg vitamin B6, 2.6 μg vitamin B12, 15 mg zinc, 2 mg copper, 65 μg selenium and 150 μg iodine, to be administered during the antenatal period. The comparative needs of micronutrients in three different conditions, viz. non-pregnant, pregnant and lactating women are interesting. The Expert Group of the International College of Nutrition proposed that this regimen needs further modification by adding chromium to prevent diabetes as well as omega-3 fatty acids, flavones and amino acids to enhance brain development and immunity among infants so as to prevent eclampsia, stroke, postpartum psychosis, hypertension, diabetes, dementia and depression in women in the next few months of follow up. These strategies can protect against nutritional problems related to under-nutrition and chronic diseases; cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, obesity, osteoporosis, chronic lung diseases and neurodegenerative diseases that occur in later life. There is evidence that the repair of micronutrient deficiency among pregnant women immediately after 8 weeks of conception can reduce the prevalence of low birth weight babies and morbidity and mortality of mothers, new born and infants. Blending micronutrients to ovolipids or soya milk can make it a high protein micronutrient rich superfood for mothers as well as infants and children, for overall health and prevention of low birth weight. The egg milk formulation (Ovolipids IF) contained 2.4 g P/100 Cal (10%), 5.2 g F/100 Cal (45%), 11.5 g C/ 100 Cal (45%), based on duck egg, whey proteins and glucose syrups. This approach including egg as a base, along with 25 micronutrients may be a new package of nutrient rich superfood for mothers as well as babies for health benefits.

Key words: Diet, health, nutrient, soy milk, protein, chronic diseases.

How to cite: Singh RB, Mishra S, Singh M, Hristova K, Gvozdjakova A. Making of a nutrient dense food formulation for pregnant mothers,  as a target to prevent adult diseases. Int J Clin Nutrition 2006; 6:1-5



Jan Fedacko, Daniel Pella, Dominik Pella, RB Singh; PJ Safaric University, Kosice, Slovakia; Halberg Hospital and Research Institute, Moradabad, India


Dr Jan Fedacko, MD, PhD

Department of Medicine,

PJ Safaric University,

Kosice, Slovakia; Email: 


The Mediterranean diet with fruits, vegetables, roots, leaves, seeds, honey, meat, fish and eggs

provided low w-6/w-3 ratio of fatty acids, high monounsaturated fatty acids, fiber, amino acids, phytochemical antioxidants and proteins. Recent studies indicate that diets similar to Mediterranean diet have anti-inflammatory potential, whereas Western diet, with refined carbohydrates, high in trans and saturated fatty acids, lower protein,  has proinflammatory effects.There is evidence that a Mediterranean diet (fruits, vegetables, nuts,olive oil, whole grains) and Indo-Mediterranean diets (whole grains, such as millets and mustard oil, vegetable, fruits and nuts, spices) may be protective in patients with high risk of CVD. In some of these studies, soup rich in nuts, raisins, vegetables, tomato, carrot and mustard oil+olive oil as well as yogurt containing nuts and raisins have been used in the treatment of acute coronary syndrome, resulting into significant reduction in cardiac events and mortality.There is evidence that tomatoes are a rich source of vitamin C, lycopine, carotene, potassium and fiber.Tomatoes also contain a factor which has antiplatelet effects. Almonds and walnuts are rich in magnesium and arginine –an amino acid which is a vasodilator. Arginine is the precursor of NO which protects the endothelium. Walnut is rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) which may be protective against CVD, diabetes, obesity and degenerative brain diseases. Carrots and coriander leaves are rich in carotene. All the spices such as fenugreek, coriander, cumin, cinnamon,turmeric have potential antioxidant activity which can prevent and potassium. Columbus oil is a brand of olive oil and

flax seed oil which is prepared to provide adequate monounsaturated fatty acids(MUFA), and a balanced ratio of w-6:w-3 fatty acids ( in a ratio of 1:1).

Key Words. Fatty acids, spices, millets, nuts, olive oil, mustard oil.

How to cite; Fedacko J,  Pella D, Pella D, Singh RB; Development of a indo- mediterranean soup for enteral nutrition and for health promotion. Int J Clin Nutrition 2006; 6: 6-10.



Aminat Magamedova (1), Anil Chauhan (2), Meenakshi Singh (3), Ekasit Onsaard (4). 1Lmosonov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia; 2Centre of Food Science and Technolog  Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi;,3CSIR, New Delhi, India; Ubon Ratchathani University, Warinchumrab, Ubonratchathani,Thailand


Dr Aminat Magamedova, PhD

Lmosonov Moscow State University,

Moscow, Russia. <>


The increased prevalence of chronic diseases throughout the world is closely linked to food security provided by western dietary patterns, with physical inactivity, causing rapid increase in the rates of obesity. Obesity has become a worldwide disease and is the major risk factor of chronic diseases. There is epidemiological evidence that both under nutrition due to food scarcity and over-nutrition due to food security are associated with significant increase in obesity, central obesity and metabolic syndrome which are risk factors of deaths due to CVDs and cancer. The adverse effects of present approaches for providing food security characterized with increased availability of ready prepared processed foods and fast foods is the major cause of epidemic of metabolic syndrome in both developed and developing countries of the world.There is a decline in deaths in developed countries, from cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which may be due to improved diet and lifestyle; improvement in food security, due to decreased intake of  manufactured foods rich in salt, saturated fat, Trans fat and sugar and increased consumption of functional foods; whole grains prepared  by the food industry in conjunction with greater intake of fruits, vegetables  as well as some increase in physical activity and decrease in tobacco intake. Functional foods industry may be defined as that food industry is concentrating on developing new developing new functional dishes and foods which contain certain nutrients such cocoa, low sugar, low salt and no trans fat that can address some physiological mechanisms in our body thereby providing benefits. Natural functional foods are available in most countries but they are expensive. The food industry can mix some of these foods (functional components) to prepare a blend of foods which may be tasty and healthy. There are various functional foods that are developed by the food industry in the market. Studies indicate that Mediterranean foods are functional foods which can provide functional food security and decrease the risk of diseases. These foods need enormous efforts in food preservation to improve function food availability at affordable cost. There is convincing evidence that dietary patterns and lifestyle modification characterized with increased  availability of some of the ready prepared foods  rich in cocoa, w-3 fatty acids, antioxidants flavonoids, fibers, vitamins and minerals developed by the food industry, reduce the incidence of obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes as well as anemia, among high-risk individuals and populations. However such food industries are not very common. 

Kew Words. Dietary pattern, food manufacturing, health foods, cocoa. 

How to cite. Magamedova A,  Chauhan A, Singh M, Onsaard E. The role of food providing functional food security. Int J clin Nutrition 2006; 6: 11-15. 



Lech Ozimek (1), Tapan K Basu(2), Takahashi Toru(3), Lekh Juneja; 1,2Department of Agriculture, Foods and Nutritional Sciences, Edmonton, Canada; College of Environmental  health and Health Sciences; Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan, Tayo Kagaku, Japan.


Prof Dr Lech Ozimek, PhD, FICN

Department of Agriculture, Foods and Nutritional Sciences,

Edmonton, Canada, Email: <>

Food processing makes use of various unit operations and technologies to convert relatively bulky,perishable and typically inedible raw materials into more useful shelf-stable and palatable foods or potable beverages. Processing contributes to food security by minimizing waste and losses in the food chain and by increasing food availability and marketability. Food is also processed in order to improve its quality and safety. Food safety is a scientific discipline that provides assurance that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared and/or eaten according to its intended use.1 Biotechnology as applied to food processing in most developing countries makes use of microbial inoculants to enhance properties such as the taste, aroma, shelf-life, texture and nutritional value of foods. The process whereby micro-organisms and their enzymes bring about these desirable changes in food materials is known as fermentation. Fermentation processing is also widely applied in the production of microbial cultures, enzymes, flavours, fragrances, food additives and a range of other high value-added products. These high value products are increasingly produced in more technologically advanced developing countries for use in their food and non-food processing applications. Many of these high value products are also imported by developing countries for use in their food-processing applications.This document will discuss the prospects and potential of applying biotechnology in food processing operations and to address safety issues in food systems with the objective of addressing food security and responding to changing consumer trends in developing countries. It is important to note that food safety evaluation or risk assessment will not be discussed here. Instead, this paper will focus on the context of biotechnologies as applied to food safety. Technologies applied in the processing of food must assure the quality and safety of the final product.Safe food is food in which physical, chemical or microbiological hazards are present at a level thatdoes not present a public health risk. Safe food can, therefore, be consumed with the assurance that there are no serious health implications for the consumer. Recent food scares such as mad cow disease and the melamine contamination of food products have increased consumer concern for food safety. As incomes rise, consumers are increasingly willing to pay a premium for quality, safety and convenience

Key Words. 

How to cite: Lech Ozimek (1), Tapan K Basu(2), Takahashi Toru(3), Lekh Juneja; Food processing, food industry and health promotion. Int J Clin Nutrition 2006; 6: 16-20. 



Abhishek D Tripathi (1), Ravi P Singh (2), Khan Nadya (3) Surendra Prasad Singh (4) Subhendra Singh (5), Dikha Surya (6). Centre of Food Science and Technology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi; Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi; Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Punjab, India


Centre of Food Science and Technology,

Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi;

Email:, Telephone: 91-9450533651


Sorbitol is a polyol used in food industry as low calorie sweetener and is potential substitute of sucrose being useful for diabetic people. In the present study, efforts have been made to optimize media components and different physical process for enhanced sorbitol production in batch cultivation by Lactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2912 using Cane molasses (sugar refinery waste) and organic nitrogen mixture as substrate. Shake flask cultivation performed under optimum physical condition viz; 37 oC temperature, 7.0 pH and agitation speed of 150 rpm, gave maximum sorbitol production. Comparative study of sorbitol production in SSF and SMF was also evaluated. Batch cultivation further performed in 7.5 L bioreactor under optimized conditions resulted in maximum cell biomass and sorbitol yield of 8.95±0.03 and 9.78±0.04 g L-1, respectively after 42.0 h of fermentation with sorbitol yield (Yp/x) and productivity of 1.11(g/g) and 0.50 g L-1.h, respectively. Characterization of sorbitol was done by HPLC.

Keywords: Lactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2912, media components, physical parameters, characterization. 

How to Cite: Tripathi AD, Singh RP, Khan N, Singh SP (4), Singh S, Surya D. Production of low calorie sweetener (sorbitol), using sugar refinery waste and its characterization. Int J Clin Nutrition 2006; 6:21-25.