Abstracts 2005; Vol 5(1): 1-25 ASSOCIATION OF DIETARY PATTERNS WITH CAUSES OF DEATH AMONG URBAN DECEDENTS IN NORTH INDIA. DIETARY INTAKES AND DEATHS STUDY (DIADS). Jan Fedacko(1), Viola Vargova(2), Ram B Singh(3); Surendra Singh(4), Vijendra Singh(5), Shallendra K Kulshresth(6), Fabien De Meester (7). 1Safaric University, Kosice, Slovakia; 2Halberg Hospital and Research Institute, Moradabad, 3Hindu College, Moradabad, India; 4Tsim Tsoum Institute, Krakow, Poland. Correspondence: Dr. R.B. Singh, MD,FICN, Formerly Professor of Medicine, Halberg Hospital and Research Institute, Civil Lines, Moradabad-10(UP) 244001, India, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract: Prospective cohort studies indicate that prudent dietary patterns, can be protective against mortality from cardiovascular and malignant diseases. In the present study, we examine the association of dietary patterns with causes of deaths among urban decedents in north India. Randomly selected records of death of 2222 (1385 men and 837 women) decedents, aged 25-64 years, were examined. Clinical data and causes of death were assessed by a questionnaire based on available hospital records and a modified WHO verbal autopsy questionnaire. Dietary intakes of the dead individuals were estimated by finding out the food intake of the spouse from 3- day dietary diaries and by asking probing questions about differences in food intake by the decedents. The score for prudent foods was significantly greater for deaths due to ‘injury’ miscellaneous causes compared to deaths due to non-communicable diseases (NCD). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that after adjustment of age, total prudent foods (OR,CI 1.11;1.06-1.18 men; 109;1.04-1.16 women) as well as fruits, vegetables, legumes and nuts (1.07; 1.02-1.12 men; 1.05; 1.99-1.11 women) were independently, inversely associated whereas Western type foods (OR,CI 1.02; 0.95-1.09 men; 1.00; 0.94-1.06 women); meat and eggs(1.00-0.94-1.06 men; .098; 0.93-1.04 women)and refined carbohydrates (0.98; 0.91-1.05 men, 0.95; 0.89-1.02 women) social class 3-5 and body mass index were positively associated with deaths due to NCDs. Increased intake of Western type foods and decline in prudent foods intake may be a risk factor for deaths due to diseases. Keywords: Nutrition, disease, sudden death, stroke, infections, cancer. How to cite: Fedacko J, Vargova V, Singh RB; Singh S, Singh V, Kulshresth SK, De Meester F. Association of dietary patterns with causes of death among urban decedents in north india. Dietary intakes and deaths study (DIADS). Int J Clin Nutrition 2005;5: 1-5. Molecular mechanism of regulation of gene expression by dietary nutrients mediated by nuclear receptor and epigenetic modulation. Mahsa Jalili (1), Sanghamitra Pati(2) Bandita Rath(3)R. B. Singh(4).1ShahidBeheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;. Indian Institute of Public Health, Bhubaneswar, Pubic Health Foundation of India 3Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, Odisa, India.4Halberg Hospital and Research Institute, Moradabad, India Correspondence: Dr Mahsa Jalili PhD, ShahidBeheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; email@example.com Abstract: Major research progress in the last few decades has elucidated the complex nexus between nutrition and health. Diet and lifestyle influences epigenetic changes that is heritable. Epigenetic changes induced by dietary nutrients ultimately culminate in expression of gene through transcription. The crosstalk between dietary nutrients and nuclear receptors triggers the signalling pathway, leading to modulation epigenetic change and gene expression. Nuclear receptors provide the best examples of transcriptional control by dietary nutrients through the targeted recruitment of large protein complexes that modify chromosomal components and reversibly stabilize or destabilize chromatin. Ligand-dependent recruitment of transcriptional coactivators destabilizes chromatin by mechanisms including histone acetylation and contacts with the basal transcriptional machinery. In contrast, the recruitment of corepressors in the absence of ligand or in the presence of hormone antagonists serves to stabilize chromatin by the targeting of histone deacetylases. This review summarizes current knowledge about the effect of dietary nutrients and bioactive molecules on the regulation of gene expression by modulating epigenetic changes. We have also attempted to review in detail the molecular mechanism of action of various dietary nutrients on gene expression mediated by nuclear receptors. Keywords: Nutrition, Epigenetic changes, Gene Expression, Transcription, Nuclear Receptors How to cite: Jalili M, Pati S, Rath B, Singh RB. Molecular mechanism of regulation of gene expression by dietary nutrients mediated by nuclear receptor and epigenetic modulation. Int J Clin Nutr 2005; 5: 6-10. 3.EFFECT OF DIET AND NUTRIENTS WITH REFERENCE TO, OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS AND COENZYME Q10 ON INFERTILITY. Baby Anjum (1),Jayeeta Chaudhury (2); Jan Fedacko(3), Viola Vargova (4), Suniti Dharwadkar (5),Sanghamitra Pati (4),; Shabnam Omidvar(5), Amit K Singh (6), Douglas Wilson (7). 1KG Medical College, Lucknow; Center of Nutrition Research, Ahamadabad, India; 3,4Faculty of Medicine, PJ Safaric University, Kosice, Slovakia; Professor, 5S.B. College Science, Aurangabad, India; 6Indian Institute of Public Health, Bhubaneswar, PHFI, India; 7School of Medicine, Pharmacy and Health, Durham, UK Correspondence: Dr Baby Anjum,PhD, Department of Physiology, KG Medical College, Lucknow, India, <firstname.lastname@example.org> Abstract. Recent studies indicate that Western type diet, sedentary behaviour, tobacco consumption and psychosocial stress may be a risk factor for emergence of non-communicable diseases (NCDS), including infertility. In the present review, we examine the available evidence on diet and nutrients, in relation to infertility. Inflammation, which is associated with sedentary behavior and increased consumption of Western style foods, may be the most important characteristic and risk factor for NCDs and infertility. Increased intake of Mediterranean type foods rich in w-3 fatty acids, antioxidants and phytochemicals may be protective. It is possible that diet and lifestyle can influence fertility via progesterone release and predispose infertility. Progesterone is known to activate CatSper, the principal Ca2+ channel of the sperm flagellum which is important in fertilization. There is evidence that biochemical composition of the spermatozoa, seminal fluid may be an important determinant of fertility and infertility. A few studies have demonstrated that w-6/w-3 ratio and CoQ10 content of the spermatozoa and seminal fluid can influence progesterone activity and its sensing by the Ca+2 channel.It is possible that diet and and nutrients can influence infertility. Keywords. Fertility, nutrition, chronic disease, spermatozoa, progesterone, nutrients. How to cite: Anjum B, Chaudhury J; Fedacko J, Vargova V, Suniti Dharwadkar S, Pati S,; Omidvar S, Singh AK, Wilson D. Effect of diet and nutrients with reference to, omega-3 fatty acids and coenzyme Q10 on infertility.Int J Clin Nutrition 2005; 5 : 11-15. 4.EFFECTS OF NUTRIENTS AND NUTRACEUTICALS ON GENETIC EXPRESSIONs IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE. MA Niaz (1)Daniel Pella(2), Jan Fedacko(3), Lekh R Juneja(4); Radzhesh Agarval (5);1Halberg Hospital and Research Institute, Moradabad, India; 2,3PJ Safaric University, Kosice, Slovakia; 4Taiyo Kagaku Co. Ltd, Yokkaichi, Japan; 5Embassy of Medical Doctors, Moscow, Russia. Correspondence: Dr MA Niaz, PhD, FICN, Former Professor of Medicine and Director, Halberg Hospital and Research Institute, Civil Lines, Moradabad-10 (UP) 244001,India Abstract: The prevalence and mortality due to multifactorial polygenic diseases; hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes and cancer vary depending upon genetic susceptibility and environmental precursors because they have identifiable mendelian subsets. Rapid changes in diet and lifestyle, may influence heritability of the varient phenotypes, that are dependent on the nutraceutical or functional food supplementation for their expression. It is possible to recognize the interaction of specific nutraceuticals, with the genetic code possessed by all nucleated cells. There is evidence, that South Asians have an increased susceptibility to CAD, diabetes mellitus, central obesity and insulin resistance at younger age, which may be due to interaction of gene and nutraceutical environment. Thesepopulations appear to have inherited predisposition and may have interaction of internal nutritional status and environmental factors. Higher intake of refined starches and sugar increases generation of superoxide anion in the leucocytes and mononuclear cells, and free fatty acids(FFA), as well as higher amount and activity of nuclear factor-kB(NF-kB), a transcriptional factor regulating the activity of at least 125 genes, most of which are pro-inflammatory. Glucose intake also causes an increase in two other pro-inflammatory transcription factors; activating protein-1 (AP-1) and early growth response protein-1 (Egr-1), the first regulating the transcription of matrix metallo-proteinases and the second modulating the transcription of tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Refined food, mixed meal induces activation of NF-kB associated with free radicals generation by mononuclear cells. The superoxide anion is an activator of at least two major pro-inflammatory transcription factors, NF-kB and AP-1. Increased intake of linoleic acid, saturated fat , trans fat and refined starches and sugars can increase the generation of free radicals and activate the NF-kB, leading to rapid expression of pro-inflammatory genes. It is possible that nutraceuticals; antioxidants, micronutrients, minerals, vitamins, coenzyme Q10 and w-3 fatty acids may inhibit the generation of superoxide and suppress NF-kB as well as AP-1, and Egr-1 leading to suppression of phenotypic expressions. It is known that genes are important in determining enzymes, receptors, cofactors, structural components involved in regulation of blood pressure, the metabolism of lipids, lipoproteins and inflammatory and coagulation factors that are involved in determining individual risk for vascular diseases and diabetes. It seems that these phenotypic expressions may be silenced by targeting simple sequence differences known as single nucleotide polymorphisms by nutraceuticals and slowly absorbed wild foods rich in micronutrients and antioxidants. Keywords: Nucleotide polymorphism, chromosome variant, proteome, transcription factor, epigenetics. How to Cite: Niaz MA, Pella D, Fedacko J, Juneja LR; Agarval R. Effects of nutrients and nutraceuticals on genetic expressions in cardiovascular disease. Int J Clin Nutrition 2005; 5 : 16-20. 5.OBESITY AND PHYSICAL INACTIVITY IN HEALTH AND DISEAESES. Mahmood Moshiri (1), Jan Fedacko (2), Daniel Pella (3), Viola Vargova (4), Radzhesh K Agarval (5), Rajendra Dhabi (6), Chibisov Sergei (7), Elena Kharlitskaya (8). OA Bawareed (9). 1Trinity Medical Center, Richmond Hill, Canada, 2,3,4Faculty of Medicine, PJ Safaric University, Kosice, Slovakia; 5,6,7,8Peoples Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia. Correspondence: Prof Dr M Moshiri,MD,FICN, Trinity Medical Centre, Richmond Hill, Canada; email email@example.com Abstract: Obesity is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic disease and disability. Physical inactivity is the major cause of obesity. In the developing and newly industrialized countries, obesity coexist with under-nutrition. It is a complex condition, with serious social and psychological dimensions, affecting virtually all ages and socioeconomic groups. Increased consumption of energy-dense foods with high levels of sugar and saturated fats, salt and trans fat and deficient in micronutrients, in conjunction with physical inactivity, have led to obesity rates that have risen three-fold or more since 1980 in middle and higher income countries. The obesity epidemic is not restricted to industrialized societies; this increase is often faster in developing countries than in the developed world. Regular physical activity may be associated with a significant reduction of chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), obesity, cancer, osteoporosis, and diabetes mellitus most of which begin with obesity.Physical activity is also known to have beneficial effects on several biomarkers of non-communicable diseases; inflammation, hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, stress hormones as well as on brain function and psychological wellbeing.Obesity has become a major health problem in the world and may be responsible for NCDs. Increased physical activity can provide protection against adverse effects of obesity, resulting in to decreased burden of NCDs and may provide better quality of life and well being. Keywords: Weight gain, foods, diet, brain function, insulin resistance. How to cite: Moshiri M, Fedacko J, Pella D, Vargova V, Agarval RK, Dhabi R, Chibisov Sergey S, Kharlitskaya E.Bawareed OA. obesity and physical inactivity in health and diseaeses.Int J Clin Nutrition 2005; 5: 21-25.