Issue 2008-8


International Journal of Clinical Nutrition (IJCN) ISSN (India) 0971-9210, Url:

A publication of the International College of Nutrition, 2008; Vol 8(1): 1-25


1.EFFECTS OF INDO-MEDITERRANEAN STYLE DIET, IN FATHER AND  MOTHER, ON FETAL GROWTH, INFLAMMATION, GENETIC PROFILE AND  CARDIO-METABOLIC RISK, IN  MOTHER AND  OFF-SPRIG. RB Singh (1), MA Manal Smail (2), Abla MA Ismail (3), Meenakshi Jain(5). Halberg Hospital and research Institute, Moradabad, India; United arab University, Ajnam, UAE; Corniche Hospital, UAE; Max Hospital, Delhi, India 


Dr Abla M Ahmed  Ismail, 

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology,

 Corniche Hospital, United Arab Emirates, ( 


Four publications in Nature and Cell followed by WHO advice on “life-course approach”  on preconception and perinatal factors, these factors appear to be essential for achieving the population health goals of the UNO 2030. The interaction of the genes and the internal and external environment can influence fetal development, health of mothers and off-spring. The role of pre-conception and perinatal behavioral factors of parents on genetic/epigenetic inheritance of cardio-metabolic diseases (CMDs) risk in the off-spring in human are least known. The role of epigenetic inheritance; the passing of phenotypic change to subsequent generations in ways that are outside the genetic code of DNA are not well known. It is unclear that a complex set of factors, including nutritional factors, come into play during epigenetic inheritance from father and mother to offspring. Chronic high-fat diet in fathers programs β-cell dysfunction in female rat offspring inducing obesity & insulin resistance, which is not yet known in humans (Nature 2010). Pregnant women require more energy, protein, iron, iodine, vitamin A, folate, and other nutrients, because nutrient deficiencies are associated with maternal complications and death, fetal and newborn death, birth defects, and decreased physical and mental potential of the child. Deficiency of omega-3 fatty acid and flavonoids  during pregnancy can increase oxidative stress and systemic inflammation which may predispose impaired beta cell function, and smooth muscle dysfunction leading to increased risk of CMDs. There is an unmet need to find out that adequate energy intake and a diversified diet that includes fruit, vegetables, and animal products throughout the life cycle help ensure that women enter pregnancy and lactation without deficiencies and obtain adequate nutrients during periods heightened demand. Since CMDs, may develop due to transgenerational inheritance, our strategy is to find out the effects of  Indo-Mediterranean style diets vs control diet, among father and mother, on complications of pregnancy, fetal development and cardio-metabolic risk factors in the offspring. The outcome of this study may indicate beneficial effects on mothers health, fetal development, insulin sensitivity, in infancy, mediated by epigenetic and genetic alterations. 

Key words. Diets, food, insulin resistance, diabetes, cardiovascular risk. 

How to cite: Singh RB, Manal Smail MA, Ismail MAA, Jain Meenakshi..Effects of Indo-Mediterranean style Diet, in Father and  Mother, on Fetal Growth, Inflammation, Genetic Profile and  Cardio-metabolic Risk in  Mother and  Off-sprig. Int J Clin Nutrition 2008; 8: 1-5. 


Viliam Mojto (1), R B Singh (2), Anna Gvozdjakova(3), Mária Mojtová (4), Jarmila Kucharská(5), OľgaVančová(6), Poonam Jaglan(7), and Toru Takahashi(8).       

1Thirrd. Internal Clinic Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovak Republic,

2Halberg Hospital and Research Institute, Moradabad, India;

3Comenius University in Bratislava, Pharmaco-biochemical Laboratory of 3rd Internal Clinic Faculty of Medicine, Slovak Republic, 4Mária Mojtová,  St. Elizabeth University of Health and Social Work in Bratislava, Slovak Republic; 5Comenius University in Bratislava, Pharmacobiochemical Laboratory of 3rd Internal Clinic Faculty of Medicine, Slovak Republic, 6Comenius University in Bratislava, Pharmacobiochemical Laboratory of 3rd Internal Clinic Faculty of Medicine, Slovak Republic; 7Center of Nutrition Research, Panipat, NCR, India. 8Department of Nutrition and Health Science, Faculty of Human Environmental Sciences, Fukuoka Women’s University, Fukuoka city, Japan. 

Corresponding author:

Dr Viliam Mojto, MD., PhD., MHA.,

Head of the 3rd. Internal Clinic Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University Bratislava, Limbova 5, 833 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic. Mob. Tel: 00421905456834, Mail:;


There is a worldwide increase in obesity in both high-income and low-income countries, due to dietary sugar and fat and decreased physical activity. Non-communicable diseases are the leading cause of death. We continue to deal with the problem of rapid upsurge in noncommunicable disease risk factors such as obesity and overweight, particularly in urban settings. Obesity rates among children are rising faster than obesity rates in adults. The risk of cardiovascular disease mortality increases once added sugar intake surpasses 15% of daily calories. Fructose, which is metabolized in the liver, seems to have unique adverse effects in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. The sugar-sweetened beverages are a marker of an unhealthy lifestyle and their drinkers consume more calories, exercise less, smoke more and have a poor dietary pattern. There is a need to educate the population about the health hazards associated with sugar consumption. 

Key words : Non-comunicable diseases, obesity, sugar intake, fructose, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, oxidative stress, coenzyme Q10. 

How to cite: Mojto V, Singh RB, Gvozdjakova A,  Mojtová M, Kucharská J. OľgaVančová(6), Jaglan P, and  Takahashi T. Dietary sugar intake and risk of non-communicable diseases. Int J Clin Nutrition 2008; 8: 6-10.



Reema Singh (1), Meenakshi Jain (2), Toru Takahashi (3), Jan Fedacko (4), Krasimira Hristova (5), Agnieszka Wilczynska (6), Maria Mojtova (7), Viliam Mojto (8), Anna Gvozdjakova (9).

1Halberg Hospital and Research Institute, Moradabad, India;

Max Hospital, Delhi, India

3Graduate School of Human Environment Science, Fukuoka Women’s University, Japan;

4Faculty of Medicine, PJ Safaric University, Kosice, Slovakia;

5University National Heart Hospital, Department of Noninvasive Functional Diagnostic and Imaging, Sofia, Bulgaria;

6Krakow University, Krakow, Poland;

7St. Elizabeth University of Health and Social Work in Bratislava, Slovak Republic.

 8Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Medicine, 3rd Department of Internal Medicine, 

  Bratislava, Slovakia,

 9Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacobiochemical Laboratory of the 3rd Department of Internal Medicine, Bratislava, Slovakia 

Corresponding author:

Professor Dr Anna Gvozdjakova, PhD, DSc.

Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacobiochemical Laboratory of the 3rd Department of Internal Medicine, Bratislava, Slovakia,



Antioxidant flavonoid deficiency may be risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Further studies indicate that increased consumption of cocoa products; cocoa, and chocolates, etc. may be associated with decreased risk of NCDs; cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, hypertension, insulin resistance, memory dysfunction and cancers. Cocoa flavonol appears to have potential beneficial effects against the risk of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, blood lipids, stroke, coronary artery disease (CAD), cancer, cognitive function and dementia due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and activation of nitric oxide effects. Meta-analysis of epidemiological studies, indicate that highest levels of chocolate consumption, were associated with a 37% reduction in CVD and a 29% reduction in stroke compared with the lowest levels. Another meta-analysis showed  a significant blood pressure-reducing effect of cocoa-chocolate compared with control but it was significant only for the hypertensive or pre-hypertensive subgroups. Clinical studies among subjects showed that cocoa intake can improve endothelial function by activation of nitric oxide. Cocoa supplementation has also been found to decrease mild cognitive impairment, insulin resistance and lipid peroxidation. Dietary supplementation with cocoa (300-1000mg/day) in the form of dark chocolates can protect against NCDs; hypertension, stroke, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, memory dysfunction and cancer. Further research is necessary to prove this finding. 

Key words. Cocoa, flavonoids, flavonols, antioxidants, diet, nutrition, hypertension, stroke, dementia, cancer, cognitive function.

How to cite: Singh R, Jain M, Takahashi T, Fedacko J, Hristova K, Wilczynska A, Mojtova M,  Mojto V, Gvozdjakova  A. cocoa consumption and prevention of chronic diseases. Int J Clin Nutrition 2008; 8: 11-15.

4.MODERN EGGs AND RISK OF DIABETES, CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, AND CANCER? Dominik Pella (1), Jan Fedacko (2), Daniel Pella(2), Viola Vargova(2), Viliam Mojto (3) Saibal Chakravorty(4); 1Department of Medicine, East Slovak Institute of Medical Sciences, Kosice, Slovakia; 2Faculty of Medicine, PJ Safaric University, Kosice, Slovakia; 4The Metro Group of Hospitals, Npoida, India.


Dr  Dominik Pella,MD,Department of Cardiology,Eastern Slovak Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Kosice, Slovakia.;


Recent evidence indicates that western diet is important in the pathogenesis of deaths due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs), whereas Mediterranean style foods are protective. The key ingredients of Mediterranean type diets include olive oil, fresh fruits and vegetables, protein-rich legumes, fish, poultry including eggs and whole grains with moderate amounts of wine and red meat. The eggs and red meat from big running animals are considered healthy, whereas meat from those animals, domesticated at farm houses and given feeds made by the industry, may have adverse effects on biological quality of meat, eggs and milk. Previous studies suggested that eating up to 5 eggs per week do not appear to have any adverse effects on health. American Heart Association has also made same advice about eating eggs. Effects of one egg daily of NCEP step 1, diet was examined in several studies showed no adverse effects on blood lipids and blood glucose. Recent cohort studies have demonstrated that increased intake of eggs, more than 3 in a week may be associated with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. More evidence is needed to confirm this finding.

Key Words: Foods, diet, vegetarian, food consumption pattern, wild type foods. 

How to cite: Pella D, Fedacko J, Pella D, Vargova V, Mojto V.  Chakravorty S; Modern eggs and risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer? Int J Clin Nutrition 2008; 8: 16-220.



Sergey Shastun (1), Radzhesh Agarval (2), Jan Fedacko (3), Dominik Pella(4), Sergey Chibisov (5), Elena Kharslitkaya(6); OA bawareed (7); 1,2,5,6People,s Friendship University of Russia; 3,4Faculty of Medicine, PJ Safaric University, Kosice, Slovakia;


Dr Sergey Chibisov,MD,PhD,

Peoples Friendship University of Russia,

Moscow, Russia, Email:<>


The dietary benefits of nuts may be provided by haemostatic factors, omega-3 fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids(MUFA), essential and nonessential amino acids, vitamins, flavonoids, folic acids as well as plant sterols that may be present in nuts. Onion, garlic, spices, green tea and other herbs could be another dimension which may have a beneficial effects on human health and diseases. Nuts such as almonds, walnuts, pea nuts may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. Epidemiological studies, suggested that nut eating was associated  with diminished risk of  cardiovascular diseases (CVDs);coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, and hypertension. Recent cohort studies showed that eating 20g to 60g per day of nuts, may be protective against CVDs. A meta-analysis of studies showed that one-serving of nuts per week and per day resulted in 4% (RR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93, 0.98) and 27% (RR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.88) decreased risk of all-cause mortality, respectively, and decreased risk of CVD mortality. More recent meta-analysis show that increased intake of tree nuts or pea nuts can also cause significant decline in all-cause mortality and mortality due to many NCDs. Further randomized, controlled trials are necessary to confirm these results.

Key Words. Walnuts, almonds, pea nuts, tree nuts, functional foods. 

How to cite: Shastun S, Agarval R, Fedacko J, Pella D, Chibisov S. Kharslitkaya E; OA bawareed OA; effects of nuts intake modulate cardiovascular diseases. Int J Clin Nutrition 2008; 8: 21-25.