Issue 2007-7


International Journal of Clinical Nutrition (IJCN) ISSN (India) 0971-9210, Url:

A publication of the International College of Nutrition,

2007; Vol 7(1): 1-25


CM Pandey (1), AK Chauhan (2), Richa Tripathi (3). 1SGPGI, Lucknow,. 2Center of Food Science, IAS, BHU, Varanasi, Department of Home Science, BHU, Varanasi, India.


Richa Tripathi, PhD

Department of Home Science,

BHU, Varanasi (UP), India

Malnutritionrefers to under-nutrition as well as over-nutrition related to obesity and metabolic syndrome. Undernutrition  is associated with deficiency of various nutrients required for growth and development of body.Here we are concerned with under-nutrition which continue to be a public health problem in most of the developing countries of the world. In developing countries such as India, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Africa, undernutrition is still common, especially in children under five years of age. Some degree of malnutrition is seen in more than 50% children of this age group. According to National Family Health Survey-3,  6.4% children under five years of age are severely malnourished in India. These children are highly susceptible to pneumonia and diarrhea which are major causes of death among them. Mortality in these children is nine times higher than well nourished children. Cause of death in severely acute malnourished (SAM) children is often their compromised immunity and body physiology. Some management practices which are suitable for most children may be dangerous in SAM children and may result in death. With appropriate nutritional management lives of many children can be saved. Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) is defined by very low weight for height/length i.e. z-score below -3SD of the median as per WHO child growth standards. Clinically it can be identified by presence of severe visible wasting or nutritional oedema or mid upper arm circumference <115 mm. This condition results due to lack of exclusive breast feeding, late complimentary feeding, inadequate feeding in the form of diluted feeds, ignorance, poverty, natural calamities, war and repeated infections.Indigenous foods such as mix of rice and beans, porridge, millets. Milk products are available at affordable cost to prevent undernutrition in children. New foods can also be developed out of beans and porridge for management of undernutrition in children.

Key words. Protein, nutrients, infection, foods, diet.

How to cite: Pandey CM, Chauhan A K, Tripathi R. Nutritional management of severe  mal-nutrition. Int J Clin Nutrition 2007; 7: 1-5.



RB Singh, Ekasit Onsaard, Tripathi AK, Chauhan AK, Rie Horuichi, MA Manal Ismail, Abla MA smailHalberg Hospital and Research Institute, Moradabad, India; Ubon Ratchathani University, Warinchumrab, Ubonratchathani, Thailand; United Arab University, Ajnam, UAE,  Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Corniche Hospital, UAE


Dr Abla MA  Ismail, MD, PhD

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 

Corniche Hospital, Ajnam, United Arab Emirates, (

Taste, flavor and satiety are hedonic perceptions which are important determinants of eating patterns, and appear to be responsible for health and development of diseases. The ancient Atharvaveda mentions that “rice, barley, bean, and sesamum” are the food allotted for human consumption (5000 BCE). Confucius, the Chinese philosopher helped to bring perfect taste to Chinese food by developing proper cooking techniques (500 BCE). In Ayurveda, which is ancient Indian system of medicine, six tastes; sweet, sour, salty, pungent (spicy), bitter, astringent taste have been identified (5000 BCE).Salty, is the simplest of the tastes, sweet indicates the presence of sugars in foods, along with certain proteins, sour taste indicate acids in certain fruits, bitter indicate peppers, umami is savory taste popular in Japan, astringent and pungent tastes are found in vinegar and ginger. (Taste and flavor. https://www. The quality of agent or food that affects the sense of taste is called flavor. Taste and flavor can be developed during infancy by feeding liquids of different tastes.

The tongue is sensitive to different tastes; salty, sweet, sour and bitter and  taste as a sense may be the perception of a combination of these chemical signals on the tongue[1-3]. Apart from life sciences, social, cultural, natural factors contribute their perspective on perception of what is called taste. The key concept is flavor  in natural sciences, encompassing all physical, chemical, and neurophysiological aspects. Psychology, anthropology, and social sciences,are crucial to study the perception of taste. in a broader concept related to tradition, geography, culture, as well as social relations. Taste is a multimodal facet of food and the way we perceive and enjoy it.

Culture is a key element that influences consumers’ food choices and their food-related attitudes and beliefs. Cultural factors also modulate their behavior, adjust their sense of taste, and guide their preferences. It seems that culture has a influence on  processes concerned with individual and social group representation. It seems that the receptors for bitter, sweet, and umami taste, appear to belong to the same superfamily of receptors coupled to G-protein, whereas the receptor for salty is an ion channel. The receptor function for sour is the least understood but may involve some kind of proton sensing. The physiology of taste and multisensory processing and integration of taste with other sensory inputs such as smell, sight, sound, mouthfeel, etc. in the brain and neural system may be crucial in understanding, how taste relates to learning, perception, emotion, and memory. The psychology of taste and how taste dictates food choice, acceptance, and hedonic behavior need further research. Development of taste preferences in children and gustatory impairment in sick and elderly are now examined to understand the nature of taste and the use of this insight to improve the quality of life and health. The perceived taste intensity varies greatly among subjects, depending on taste phenotypes, gender and ethnicity, which contribute to variation in responsiveness to taste. It seems that people of Asian ethnicity tend to experience taste more intensely by perception of bitter and pungent taste (South Asians in particular, umami by Japanes,. compared to Caucasians. The perception of intensity of sour and metallic taste is highest in Asians compared to Caucasians. Therefore, it is proposed that hedonic scale should have ten point scale or more while studying taste perception among Asians. The points may be further more among South Asians but lesser among people living in middle east where peppers and chillies are not commonly consumed. Total Scores may be different for these population groups. Table 1.

  Table 1. Modified hedonic scale for perception of taste among Asians.


9- Point Hedonic Scale

10- Point Hedonic Scale for Asians



Fantastic taste-expects more


Like extremely,                                                                                                                                                                             

Like extremely,                                                                                                                                                                              


Like very much,                                                                                                                                                                                       

Like very much,                                                                                                                                                                                       


Like moderately,                                                                                                                                                                                   

Like moderately,                                                                                                                                                                                    


Like slightly

Like slightly


Neither like nor dislike                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

Neither like nor dislike                                                                                                                                                                                                                        


Dislike slightly                                                                                                                                                                           

Dislike slightly                                                                                                                                                                           


Dislike moderately,                                                                                                                                                                                      

Dislike moderately,                                                                                                                                                                                     


Dislike very much,                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

Dislike very much,                                                                                                                                                                                                                        


Very bad taste

Very bad taste




Since people od Asian ethnicity experience taste more intensely, there is an unmet need to modify this scales by including few more points. The research carried out at the University of Nottingham’s Sensory Science Centre is the first to explore the association between ethnicity (Caucasian vs Asian) and different observed variations in taste perception, known as taste phenotypes. ([3]. This center has defined taste phenotypes on perceived taste intensity, including PROP taster status, Thermal Taster Status and Sweet Liking Status. The intensity of taste perception, and other oral sensations can vary greatly among subjects and may be one of the most important determinants of food preference and consumption influencing nutritional and health status. The tongue is wrapped in taste buds (papillae) which are small, mushroom-shaped bumps, fungiform papillae located on the anterior tip of tongue, contain taste receptors that bind to the molecules from food which can be identified by brain. The perception of taste occurs when certain compounds released from food dissolve in saliva and interact with taste receptor cells within taste buds. Most mammals are able to detect five different types of taste: sweet, bitter, sour, salty and umami, whilst some other sensations have also been identified as potential tastes

Key Words. Flavor, Asian, tonge, taste buds.

How to cite: Singh RB, Onsaard E, Tripathi AK, Chauhan AK, Horuichi R, The modified ten point hedonic scale for perception of taste in Asians. Int J Clin Nutrition 2007; 7: 6-10. 


1.Mouritsen, OG. The science of taste. Flavour 4, 18 (2015).

2.Williams JA, Bartoshuk LM, Fillingim RB,Dotson CD. Exploring ethnic differences in taste perception, Chemical Senses, Volume 41, Issue 5, June 2016, Pages 449–456,

  1. Yang Q, Williamson AM, Hasted A, Hort J, Exploring the relationships between taste phenotypes, genotypes, ethnicity, gender and taste perception using Chi-square and regression tree analysis, Food Quality and Preference, 2020; 83: 103928, analytical-and-testing-instruments-for-food-development-C10G-E052.pdf, accessed March 2022.



A D Tripathi (1) Tekraj Joshi (2) S P Singh (3),RP Singh(4). Centre of Food Science and Technology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005,  India; Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India


Dr A D Tripathi, PhD

Centre of Food Science and Technology,

Institute of Agricultural Sciences,

Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005,  India


Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are intracellular carbon energy storage reserve material stored by gram-negative bacteria under the low nutrient concentration. PHAs are best alternative biodegradable plastics (bio-plastics) due to their resemblance with conventional synthetic plastic. The present study investigated the synergistic effect of nutritional supplements (amino acid and vitamin) on PHA production by Alcaligenes sp. NCIM 5085 utilizing a sugar refinery waste (cane molasses) under submerged fermentation process. Initially, the effect of individual factor on PHA yield was studied by supplementing amino acids (cysteine, cystine and methionine), vitamin (thiamine) and cane molasses at varying concentration in production medium. Further, the cultivation media was optimized by varying the levels of cane molasses, methionine and thiamine using response surface methodology to enhance the PHA yield. The maximum PHA yield of 70.89 % was obtained under optimized condition which was then scale up on 7.5 l bioreactor. Batch cultivation in 7.5 l bioreactor under optimized condition gave maximum PHA yield and productivity of 79.26 % and 0.312 g/l/h. The produced PHA was subsequently characterized as PHB by FTIR and NMR. PHB extracted from chosen strain were of relatively high molecular weight and crystallinity index. DSC analysis of extracted PHB gave Tg , Tm and Xc of 4.2 , 179 oC and 66 %, respectively. TGA analysis of PHB produced by Alcaligenes sp. showed thermal stability with maximized degradation occurring at 302 oC which is above the melting temperature (179 oC) of the purified polymer. The extracted polymer possessed desirable material properties to be used in tissue engineering.

Keywords: Polyhydroxyalkanoate; sugar refinery waste; nutritional substrate; characterization; physicochemical properties. 

How to cite. Tripathi AD, Joshi T, Singh  SP, Singh RP. Optimization of nutritional supplements for enhanced bio-plastic (PHB) production utilizing sugar refinery waste with potential application in tissue engineering. Int J Clin Nutrition 2007; 7: 11-15.



R K Pal, Nilesh Gaikwad and N V Singh. ICAR-National Research Centre on Pomegranate, Solapur, India


Dr R K Pal, PhD

ICAR-National Research Centre on Pomegranate, Solapur, India


India is one of the leading countries in pomegranate acreage and production worldwide. The area under pomegranate cultivation in India is 1.31 Lakh ha with production of 13.46 Lakh tonnes in year 2014-15 (NHB). The area under cultivation of pomegranate has increased from 96.9 thousand hectares (2003-04) to 131 thousand hectares (2014-15). The pomegranate is grown in the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan and Tamilnadu. Cultivation of pomegranate is expanding at a rapid rate in several non-traditional regions viz. M.P., U.P., U.K., W.B. and Nagaland. Pomegranate fruit has wide acceptability among the consumers because its arils have attractive colour, juiciness, sweet acidic taste, refreshing juice and known nutraceutical values. The rise in production of pomegranate has compelled to rethink about future marketing and utilization strategy for this high value produce. Although pomegranate is a very attractive fruit having great visual appeal yet it is classified under difficult to eat category of fruits for fresh consumption (unlike the easy to eat fruits viz. banana and oranges). Opportunities for value addition are plenty for total utilization of pomegranate. For example, a farmer with all available modern agri-horticultural technologies can harvest approximately 80 per cent of fruits suitable for export and domestic market. Rest 20 per cent of the harvest is neither marketable nor will fetch any return even to meet the transportation cost for taking this produce up to the market. Potentiality of use of high value nutraceutical compounds and bio-colouring agent in pomegranate peel have not been exploited so far in commercial scale. Similarly, use of high value pomegranate seed oil as active ingredient of food, pharmaceutical or cosmetic products has not yet been explored in India. Formulation of dietary supplements from pomegranate for management of several important human ailments viz. atherosclerosis, diabetes and even cancer may be possible in the coming years. Therefore, the enormous scope of entrepreneurship development using pomegranate for production of high value ingredients for food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries is discussed in this paper.   

Key words. Antioxidant, free radicals, chronic diseases,

How to cite: R K Pal, Nilesh Gaikwad and N V Singh Pomegranate for entrepreneurship development through production of bioactive compounds as ingredient for food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industry. Int J Clin Nutrition 2007; 7: 16-20.



J B. Prajapati. Principal & Dean,SMC College of Dairy Science, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, India 


Dr J B. Prajapati, PhD

SASNET-Fermented Foods

Principal & Dean,SMC College of Dairy Science,

Anand Agricultural University
Anand – 388 110 (India) ,

Key Words. Microbiota, microbiome, gut, food, diet.

How to cite: Prajapati JB. Probiotic food products and gut health. Int J Clin Nutrition 2007; 7: 21-25.